High efficiency P type crystalline solar cells are being developed using SiO2 both for front
side passivation and for backside thick oxide beneath the contacts. Wet oxides grown from
purified steam have been shown to provide a high level of surface passivation and reduce
process times when compared to dry oxidation.
On-site generated fluorine is a safe and reliable alternative to greenhouse gases for
chemical vapor deposition (CVD) chamber cleaning, and is currently used in the commercial
production of semiconductors, LCD screens, and thin-film solar panels in multiple sites in
both Asia and Europe.